Situation Analysis: In Nandurbar district, most of the cultivators grow crops in kharif like cotton, banana, sugarcane paddy, maize, soybean, sunflower, chilli, pigeonpea, black gram and green gram under irrigated and rainfed condition and during rabi sorghum, wheat, gram, sunflower, groundnut and safflower crops grown. Infestation of weeds causes greater reduction in yield than any other single factor by their competition for light, nutrient and water. Delay and negligence in weeding operation affect the crop yield up to 30-60%. Weed control within crop rows is one of the major problems in farming. Weeding in row crops is normally carried out by hand weeding. Various hand tools like spade, khurpi are used by farm women. For weeding, the farm women have to sit in squatic position. It creates drudgery leading backache. Along with drudgery, the field capacity is very low. It requires more labourers and time. Untimely weeding harms crop growth.
KVK's Intervention:To solve this problem, many research centers designed and developed wheel hoes. Considering the usefulness of wheel hoes, KVK, Nandurbar brought this wheel hoe and tested on farmers' fields. Farmers'
feedback was obtained. After critical analysis of feedback, refinement was needed. Accordingly, certain refinement was made on wheel hoe after testing at farmers' fields. Some additional attachments for additional utilities were also designed and developed. It was named as 'MOGI' in the name of Goddess of farmers. Before large scale extension, it was thought that MOGI should be scientifically tested for its efficient working at reputed institute. Then, it was handed over to AICRP on Farm Implements and Machinery, MPKV, Rahuri for validating. As per the product testing report of MPKV, Mogi-improved wheel hoe found quite efficient and superior under various testing components. The weeding efficiency and field cover capacity was found 82.58 % and 0.036 ha/hr, respectively. It found most useful in light to medium soils for almost all row crops.
KVK, Nandurbar signed MoU with a private manufacturing company for mass scale production of Mogi-Improved Wheel Hoe. This has set up an example of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) for the benefit of farmers at large. It was popularized through use of mass media.
Benefits and Horizontal Expansion:The farmers have used Mogi- Improved wheel hoe for inter-cultivation and weeding in between the crop rows. They performed weeding in soybean, sorghum, maize, bengal gram, pearl millet crop with a field capacity of 0.4 ha/day. The cost of operation with the Mogi- Improved wheel hoe was Rs.400 /ha which was very less as compared to manual weeding (Rs.3750/ha). Thus, there was saving of 88% in cost of operation. There was no crop damage with the use of this implement. Drudgery of farm women was also reduced.
Mogi- Improved wheel hoe have got popularity among the farming community. About 1250 farmers from 31 districts, 67 tehsils and 140 villages purchased Mogi- Improved wheel hoes for various crops. 40 Mogi- Improved wheel hoes are being used by the farmers on custom hiring basis through 10 Shetkari Suvidha Kendras. Thus, farmers are saving the cost of weeding on their farms. Weed infestation is reduced and overall increase in yield was observed. It is also supplied to the farmers of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Gujarat states. Mogi- Improved wheel hoe found as efficient tool for weeding and inter-cultivation.
Looking the success of this technology, ATMA, Nandurbar has included in their scheme and allotted 50 Mogi wheel hoes to the tribal farmers. Marginal and small farmers are using single Mogi- Improved wheel hoe on their farms. Medium and large land holding farmers have purchased 2-3 Mogi- Improved wheel hoes for weeding and inter-cultivation.
Groundnut was raised under rainfed condition. Due to low productivity, groundnut is replaced with soybean crop. Under varied climatic condition like erratic rainfall, prolonged dry spell, soybean was affected several times. To overcome this problem, intervention was planned to sow the improved variety MACS-1188 with broad bed and furrow planter (BBF) for better in-situ moisture conservation under rainfed situation.
Technological Intervention: The KVK conducted 50 demonstrations on 20 ha area with active involvement of farmers on cluster basis. During this process, KVK gave the inputs like improved seed-MACS-1188, Trichoderma, Rhizobium, PSB for seed treatment and 13:00:45 for foliar application based on soil testing. Soybean crop was sown by BBF planter for better moisture conservation and to maintain optimum plant population. Several extension activities were organized for making the demonstration more effective. Provision of Spiral Separator for cleaning of seed to SHGs and income generation through value addition-preparation of soya paneer (Tofu) and soya milk was made.
Spread and Benefits: For efficient in-situ moisture conservation, broad bed furrow planter with improved variety MACS-1188 was demonstrated and compared to traditional bullock drawn seed drill under rainfed condition. On an average 24.1 q/ha yield was recorded under sowing through BBF which was superior with 22% increase in yield over local check (19.6 q/ha). Net return of Rs. 44100/ha was attained by the farmers while under farmer's practice profit of Rs. 31200/ha was realized.
Female SHGs were provided spiral separator to nearby villages on hiring basis by charging 150 Rs/day. Soybean was cultivated by BBF planter in about 20 ha area in year 2016-17. After introduction of BBF planter, the area under cultivation was increased significantly. In 2017-18, the area covered under soybean crop was recorded about 100 ha with use BBF planter.
In Maharashtra the Vidarbha region is recognized mostly for farmer's suicide particularly Wardha district, but in contrary there is success too. In this context, a success story of Shri Dilip Nanaji Pohane belonged to village Daroda, taluka Hingnaghat of district Wardha is discussed here. He belongs to farming family and holds 12 acres cultivated land that depends on rainfall. In addition, he faced many problems in farming such as labour problem, uneven rainfall, electricity load shading problem, fluctuation in market rate, etc. Despite of this, he consistently engaged in crop and animal husbandry for survival of his family members. With active support of KVK, he developed his developed scientific technical knowhow and skill related to farming. He used to grow crops like cotton, soybean and pigeon pea under rainfed condition.
He adopted various in-situ moisture conservation practices like across the slope cultivation, opening of furrow, etc. He opened the furrow in cotton at 45 days after sowing by using desi plough. In case of soybean, furrow opened at 30 days after sowing by using two tines bullock drawn cultivator. He had sown pigeon pea on beds at a distance of 2.5 m and three rows of soybean sown as intercrop. He prepared beds by using tractor drawn bed maker implement. Due to this intervention, the runoff from the field is reduced up to 60-65%. During dry spell, the moisture in the treated field was 25% and in untreated field it was 20%, so the treated field conserved 4% more moisture than untreated field. It helped to sustain the crop during two dry spells occurred during 7 to 18 August and 1 to 11 September due to conservation of moisture.
Under rainfed condition, by using these moisture conservation technologies, the farmer got 7q/acre cotton which was 18.64% higher than previous year cotton yield (5.9 q/acre). The cost of furrow opening operation was Rs.1000/acre. The total cost of cultivation was around Rs.15000. He sold cotton @Rs.5000/q. Gross Monetary Return was Rs.35000/-. He also cultivated pigeonpea as intercrop in cotton and attained yield of 2 q/acre and obtained net profit of Rs.7000 from pigeonpea crop. So, he realized the net profit of Rs.27000/acre, while the previous year's net profit was only of Rs.15500/acre.
Situation Analysis: The total area under cultivation of Pune district is 10.05 lakh ha which constituted about 64% of the total land in the district. The cropping pattern presents a high degree of diversity largely conditioned by variations in rainfall and availability of irrigation water. Out of 11.66 lakh ha gross cropped area, 4.2 lakh ha i.e. sown in rabi and summer season. As rabi sorghum is the major crop as well as fodder crop of the dry land area of Pune district but the average yield is very less (6.25 q/ha) due to uneven rainfall and dry spells moisture stress at critical growth stages.
Technology, Implementation and Support: KVK Baramati conducted survey in various operational areas to find out the needs of farmers and thrust area of rabi sorghum, low yield in rabi sorghum was identified. The technology of moisture conservation was demonstrated. In this practice, moisture was conserved uniformly in the field due to small (10x10 m) flat beds which reduces runoff losses of water and soil erosion. Due to uniform moisture conservation, the crop growth found uniform besides minimizing the moisture stress. The water moisture stress during critical growth period was minimized and ultimately gave assured yield of rain fed crops. The rainfall received during September and October is crucial for rabi sorghum cultivation. KVK organized village wise farmer's campaigns on the above technology before sowing of sorghum crop.
Technology Application:With just 60 to 70 mm rainfall before sowing of rabi sorghum, by adopting the technology, farmers could obtain higher yield in Baramati, Purandar and Indapur tehsils, whereas, the farmers who did not adopt the technology could not get even fodder yield. As farmers could see themselves the advantages of adopting the technology, so more area was covered in situ soil moisture conservation technology in next rabi season. The technology of moisture conservation results showed that under the demonstration of in situ moisture conservation techniques recorded more plant height (142.1cm) and average grain yield (14.81 q/ha), net return (Rs. 21989/ha) with average yield increase of 211.7% over farmer's practice. The normal sowing of rabi sorghum was observed after getting sufficient rainfall with flat bed method of sowing with seed drill. But after sowing of sorghum, there is dry spell of 30 to 60 days due to that crop gets wilted and farmers could not get even fooder yield. Before sowing of crop there was heavy rainfall of 50 to 100 mm in a day resulting in errosion of soil and uneven moisture distribution in soil so that crop could not grow evenly.
In-situ soil moisture conservation work was done on >207 villages of Pune district in medium black soils under crop demonstration of rabi sorghum and other crops in 7214 farmers' fields. Due to this activity, about 3225 ha area was brought under this technique in rainfed area. With just 60 to 70 mm rainfall before sowing of rabisorghum, farmers could harvest good yield in Baramati, Purandar & Indapur Tehsils. The technique resulted increase in yield of 60 to 70%. Where this technology was not adopted, farmers could not harvest even Kadba and during Kharif farmers used this practice for cultivation of Bajara. Most of the Bajra crop got failure due to intermittent drought but farmers' who adopted this practice got average 6 to 15 q/ha yield of Bajra.
In Maharashtra, district Beed ranked first in production. Couples are involved in rearing of cocoon, so more opportunity is being created for self employment. One of the example of sericulture is shared here for showing regular and assured income of farmers through sericulture. Shri Kishan Jadhav, Warapgaon, Ambajogai (Beed) started rearing of cocoon. Mulberry plantation is done using drip irrigation. 100 DFL (disease free larvae) per batch for cocoon production followed. The farmer harvested cocoon 7 times in a year. No risk assured income to farmers was realised. Used maize as a guard crop on boundary for protection. Cocoon selling was done through group at Ramnagar, Karnataka. It saved time and money of farmers. Yield of cpcoon per batch 80-90 kg was obtained and sold on an avereage @ Rs. 450 to 600 per kg. Income of Rs. 45000/100 DFLs was obtained within 25 days. Average annual income of Rs. 315000 was achieved by the farmer.
Situation Analysis:The pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) is an important pest in cotton which affects its farming significantly.Female moth lays eggs in cotton bolls and when the larvae emerge from the eggs, they inflict damage through feeding. They chew through the cotton lint to feed on the seeds. Since cotton is used for both fiber and seed oil, the damage is twofold. Their disruption of the protective tissue around the boll is a portal of entry for other insects and fungi. The pink bollworm is now resistant to first generation transgenic Bt Cotton.
In Surendranagar district > 60% area of kharif crop is occupied by Bt cotton. In the kharif season, out of total area under cotton crop, > 80% of area covered by Bt cotton cultivation. During last two years, pink bollworm's heavy infestation was observed and became headache for the farmers.Under able guidance of Junagadh Agricultural University, KVK visited many affected cotton fields to study pest menace in different villages. After critical analysis, use of bio-agent Beauveria bassiana and other bio pesticides with IPM module were suggested for cost effective management of pink bollworm and sucking pest in cotton crop.
Planning and Intervention: Infestation of pink bollworm observed early, so awareness campaign was initiated for control of pink bollworm in cotton. In this campaign, 34 farmers meetings and 9 agro-dealers meets were organized at tehsil level. In awareness campaign, thorough discussion was made on pink bollworm life cycle, its identification, nature of damage, IPM, use of bio pesticide for cost effective control and efficient management of pink bollworm with low cost of inputs e.g. use of Beauveria bassiana, pheromone traps, etc. Mobile based agro-advisory was also given. Posters on pink bollworm management were pasted at public places. Meanwhile, Junagadh Agricultural University took initiative to produce Sawaj brand Beauveria bassiana. KVK assured the availability of Beauveria bassiana and tried reach among 3360 farmers by selling 12061 kg in 2016-17 and 31645 kg among 2947 farmers in year 2017-18.
Spread and Benefits:The centre succeeded the sale of 43706 kg of Sawaj brand Beauveria bassiana alone to farmers from its own outlet and used by 6307 farmers on 17482 ha area. Field observations were recorded by the KVK to monitor the situations, ways of effective management of pink boll worm incidence.
Economy of cost of inputs use for pest in cotton crop
At initial stage of crop, farmers used 1.5 kg of Beauveria bassiana/ha (Sawaj Beauveria) with cost of Rs. 225. Due to low cost, management of pink bollworm by using Beauveria bassiana got speed up and farmers started promoting it among other fellow farmers.Better performance of technology gave them a confidence to rush to the KVK for buying Beauveria bassiana for minimizing attack of pink bollworm.At KVK outlet, the experts oriented them understanding about know-how about use of Beauveria bassiana and pheromone traps, etc. Horizontal spread of this technology created more demand of Beauveria bassiana for control of pink bollworm and sucking pest in cotton crop. As a result, thousands of the farmers were attracted to utilize the technology.
In different villages of Surendranagar district, 43706 kg Beauveria bassiana (Sawaj Beauveria)was purchased from KVK in last two years.If above 3 sprays was assumed to be done with Beauveria bassiana in comparison to chemical spray, Rs. 8701467 as net saving was observed. (If 5.5 kg of B. bassiana used for three spray then 12061/5.5*1095= 8701467/-, here 43706 kg is quantity of total B. bassiana used by farmers, Rs. 825 incurred for purchase of every 5.5 kg Beauveria bassiana and Rs. 1095 is average overall total saving/ha if three spray done with B. bassiana).
Use of B. bassiana replaced hazardous chemical pesticides for managing pink bollworm and sucking pest in cotton.The farmers realized that if we are obtaining same result by using Beauveria bassiana at lower cost, then why we should go for use of costly chemicals.Agro-input dealers of the locality got inspired to promote the use Sawaj brand Beauveria bassiana with cost effective measure and also eco-friendly.
Problem and Agro-climatic Situation:Kutch district in Gujarat is situated extremely at western part of the state. Major portion of the district is having arid and semiarid climatic condition. In summer, climate is too hot and winter is dry and cold. Monsoon is very short and irregular. Average annual rainfall in the district is only 360 mm with 13 average rainy days. Salinity is the foremost problem both in soil and water. Date palm is the major fruit crop in the Kutch district. Its commercial cultivation was found only in Kutch district. Date palm being a dioecious plant, it bears male and female flowers on separate trees. Manual pollination is necessary for commercial production. Traditional plantation in Kutch district is by seeds which produced mixture of maleand female plants with highly heterogeneous fruit quality. Due to mixture of varieties, farmers got poor market price of fruits. The major problems in date palm cultivation are less availability of elite planting materials, fruit maturity time coincides with onset of monsoon, propagation by seed is uneconomical, manual pollination is laborious and injurious. The best propagation method is by suckers or by tissue culture technique. Elite variety suckers are not available in a large scale for plantation and tissue culture work is started very recently.
Technological Support:KVK promoted date palm cultivation through elite local variety suckers (offshoots) and conducted method demonstration of offshoots propagation. Training was also conducted along with exhibitions and seminars. With these efforts, date palm cultivation was started through good variety offshoots. Earlier, they were throwing these offshoots.
Tissue culture technique was only the option to prepare elite planting material on a large scale. KVK gave idea of tissue culture technique and established tissue culture laboratory during 2001. As a result, till date 10000 plants have been supplied to the farmers. About 1000 plants of elite variety were given to the farmers free of cost as against their donation of offshoots. In India, the first time tissue culture local variety plants were given to the farmers.
To reduce the drudgery and the tedious job of frequent climbing on tree for pollination, KVK, Kutch developed and popularized PVC pollinator. It is PVC pipe and empty glucose bottle to blow pollens on female flowers. Trainings and demonstrations were conducted for the farmers for the improved pollination method.
To popularize date palm fruit at national level, KVK, Kutch established Date Palm Growers Association and about 246 farmers got registered under this association. The centre also organized fruit exhibitions and marketing stalls at different platforms.
Uptake, Spread and Benefits: More than 90% of the farmers have started date palm cultivation either by suckers or by tissue culture method. Earlier, no farmers were using offshoots. Total 40000 elite offshoots were planted by farmers. Farmers are now growing tissue culture date palm plants and about more than 10000 plants of local elite variety and 120000 plants of imported Barahi variety of date palm were planted by farmers. Farmers have started marketing of quality date palm fruit in outside the Gujarat state. Farmers are now selling their best quality fruits in Ahmedabad, Delhi, Jaipur and Bangalore like cities during a peak season. They are getting Rs. 150 to 250 per kg market price in such type of marketing.
The farmer's annual income (Rs 51 crores) was increased due to improved date palm cultivation technology. Till date, about 40000 offshoots were planted by the farmers and the price of single offshoot is Rs. 1000 to Rs. 10000. Earlier farmers were throwing these offshoots. About 8 farmers have started a business to sale offshoots.
KVK established the tissue culture laboratory in 2004 and now till date 130000 plants of the best variety (local elite and Barahee) supplied to the farmers. Thus, Kutch district is the main source of the best planting material of date palm in India.
Every year, many farmers from different state of India are coming to Kutch district to purchase date palm plants. Many merchants from Kerala and Tamil Nadu are purchasing fruits in large quantity from Kutch market and they are selling at their states. Thus, after innovation of offshoot propagation and tissue culture technique, revolutionary changes were observed in terms of farmers' economic gain.
Looking to the success and importance of work, other two agencies have started to import 'Barahi' variety tissue culture plants and almost 120000 such plants supplied to the farmers.